February Scout’s Report

January Scout’s Report

Grant’s First Courier to Knoxville

Nine days before Mary Love was General Grant’s courier to General Burnside at Knoxville, Union Sgt. Cornelius M. Hadley, Company F, 9th Michigan Cavalry, carried a different message from Grant to Burnside and carried Burnside’s messages back to his command. Not only did Sgt. Hadley’s harrowing trip occur nine days before Mary Love’s, but he went from Cumberland Gap while Mary left from Kingston, TN. His actions were related years later and were those which won him the Medal of Honor which was awarded on April 5, 1898. This writer was alerted to Hadley’s daring trip by an heir of Sgt. Hadley who read the Mary Love posting.

Grant knew that Burnside was besieged and isolated at Knoxville. He was determined to reinforce him if he could. Grant sent the following message to General Orlando Willcox, commanding the Union forces in and around Cumberland Gap, approximately fifty miles north of Knoxville: “I shall attack Bragg on the 21st (at Chattanooga), and if successful, will start immediately to the relief of Knoxville, if you can hold out. Grant. “

General Willcox had his subordinate choose 4 sergeants, two from the 9th MI Cavalry and two from the 7th OH Cavalry to carry the dispatch to Knoxville. The Michigan Sergeants were Cornelius M. Hadley and William B. Rowe. They started their journey together on November 20, 1863. Sgt. Rowe took sick near Knoxville and Sgt. Hadley completed the trip alone. The message was successfully delivered after 9:00 pm on November 20. Burnside had four dispatches he wanted returned to General Willcox, so Hadley began his return trip the following morning. Sgt. Hadley hooked up with Sgt. Rowe and they began the return journey together. While descending Clinch Mountain, they were discovered by the rebels and separated to escape. Sgt. Rowe was captured and was imprisoned first at Richmond and later at Andersonville. Sgt. Hadley made it safely back to General Willcox headquarters. He had ridden and walked over 100 miles and wore out two horses to successfully deliver all messages in both directions.

Sgt. Hadley’s account of the trip, written years later, is as follows.  “My bunkmate, brought me a Confederate uniform that we had captured a few days before… We met at Clinch River, a mile out of camp, and I was disappointed to see that the Ohio boys were wearing full uniform. They could not get a disguise, and neither could Rowe. We crossed the mountains and Holston River together and then separated, the Ohioans taking one road and Rowe and I another. Hard riding had used up my horse at 2 P. M., and I had to borrow another from a stable nearby, the owner protesting. At four o’clock (PM) we passed New Market, and were now within sound of our artillery, but with two rivers and one range of mountains to cross, and twenty thousand rebels to pass. We succeeded in crossing Bull Mountain and French Broad River, then going south of the city, we reached our lines near Knoxville. Here Sergeant Rowe was taken sick, and I rode alone into the city, reaching General Burnside’s headquarters at 9 P. M., after having been continually in the saddle for nineteen hours. I expected to remain in Knoxville until the siege was raised, and was surprised when General Burnside asked me to undertake to return with dispatches at four o’clock in the morning. Taking me into a private room, he produced four dispatches written on tissue paper, one to General Wilcox, one to General Grant, one to the Secretary of War, and one to Mrs. Burnside, in Rhode Island, and placing them in my revolver, he said: ‘Sergeant Hadley, if captured, be sure to fire off your revolver before surrendering.’ After passing the last picket, I found Sergeant Rowe better and determined to return with me. I cannot tell how long we maneuvered before we got through the enemy’s lines, but all at once, about two o’clock in the morning, as we were descending Clinch Mountain, we discovered the camp fires of some rebels, and had gone out but a few steps when we were ordered to ‘Halt.’ We turned to retreat, but a volley was fired at us. Our horses being jaded, the rebels gained on us, so we determined to dismount, and foot the rough mountain. Rowe thought he could evade the rebels by lying down, but they stumbled over him, and he was captured and sent to Andersonville. As for me, I could take no chances, for I was wearing a Confederate uniform and I knew I would be executed as a spy if I was caught. I kept on around the side of the mountain till I was exhausted and could not go a step farther. I found a big hollow log that had been split open, and I lay down in that with my revolver under my head. When I awoke it was daylight and I could hear the rebel pickets talking close by me; they had captured our horses and were looking for me. I was relieved when I heard their officers calling them in. Watching my chance I crept down the mountain, passed between their pickets, and crossed the road about eighty rods from their main camp. I came to a house which fortunately was occupied by a Union woman… She pointed out a ravine, by following which I could get across the valley without being seen, and strike the timber. I followed her directions and came to a road at the other end of the timber. While I was considering which direction I should take, a rebel horseman came riding slowly along. I dropped on one knee and drew my revolver on him, but he passed within ten feet of me without seeing me. I got to the Clinch River at last and found it too high to swim across. There was no ferry and no one was willing to row me across, as one bank was lined with rebels and the other with Northern troops. Finally I got a man to attempt it, and as we got to the other shore, a squad of Union soldiers came down to meet us. I told them who I was, and they gave me a horse. I rode to General Wilcox’s headquarters, where I delivered my dispatches. I was completely exhausted, for I had ridden and walked over 100 miles and had tired out two horses, but was thankful to have escaped with my life, and accomplished the purpose of my journey.”

Mary Love’s message from Grant to Burnside, assuring him that help was on the way, was sent nine days later and was dated on the same day as the Battle of Fort Sanders. Cornelius M. Hadley survived the war and went back to farming in Litchfield, MI. He passed away at the age of 63 on March 22, 1902.

Source: https://www.fadedfootsteps.com/veteran/1st-lieutenant-medal-of-honor-cornelius-m-hadley-and-wife-minerva-b-hadley-company-f-9th-michigan-cavalry-union-army

Scout’s Report – December 2022


Fort Dickerson Living History Weekend

Everyone is invited to attend Weekend of November 12 and 13, 2022

We need volunteers for the Fort Dickerson weekend on November 12th and 13th. You can work just 2 hours or less. The time for the event on Saturday, 10 am till 4:30 pm and Sunday 11 am till 4:30 pm. If you would like to volunteer, please call Tom Wright, 865-621-2093.

The Living History Weekend runs from 10 am until 4:00 pm on Saturday, November 12, 2022, and from 11 am until 4:30 pm on Sunday, November 13, 2022. Activities will include living history campsites, infantry drilling with rifle firing demonstrations, a Civil War medical and surgical exhibit, ladies fashions, battle reenactments, cannon firings, and a salute to all veterans including an American flag retirement ceremony.

Visitors are invited to park for free at “Wee Care Shoppe” parking lot at 2537 Chapman Highway, across from Shoney’s, where they can board a free shuttle to Fort Dickerson courtesy of the Knoxville Department of Parks and Recreation.

Special Note: Bring your American flags that are no longer in condition to be flown or displayed to the event so the members of the 8th Tennessee Volunteer Infantry can properly retire them. There will be a public flag retirement ceremony after the skirmish on both days of the event. We encourage everyone to bring their weathered flags.

For more information on the event as well as Civil War History in Knoxville, go to http://www.kcwrt.org. Or contact Event Coordinator Tom Wright at 865-482-1680, thomaswright8@comcast.net, or Re-enactor Coordinator Perry Hill at 865-283-1691.

List of activities:

Saturday, November 12, 2022:  Opening at 10:00 AM

Sunday, November 13, 2022: Opening at 11:00 AM

10:00 AM: Opening Ceremony, Saturday only

11:30 AM: Mustering in/Infantry Drill

2:00 PM: Civil War Skirmish

3:00 PM: Pass and Review; Plus Flag Retirement Ceremony

3:30 PM: Medical and Surgical Demonstration

4:00 PM: Camps Closed to Public

Other Activities throughout both days: Ladies Fashion Exhibit, Civil War Arms Exhibit, Medical Demonstration, History of Fort Dickerson and other interpreters talking to the public about their historic character.


November 2022 Meeting Date Change

**Please note: Due to Election Day on November 8, the next meeting is on the third Tuesday, November 15th**

The KCWRT will have its monthly meeting on Tuesday, November 15th, 2022, at the Bearden Banquet Hall, 5806 Kingston Pike, Knoxville, TN. 

If attending the buffet, please call (865) 671-9001 for reservations prior to 10 AM on the Monday before the meeting so that we can let Bearden Banquet Hall know how many meals to prepare. Anyone attending only the lecture does not need to call in reservations.

06:30 P.M. – Buffet begins

07:15 P.M. – KCWRT Business meeting and announcements

07:30 P.M. – Speaker is Chris Mackowski. He will be discuss Fredericksburg: The Fourteen Critical Decisions That Shaped the Action and Defined the Battle

Special Note: We will be having a Holiday Auction at both the November and December meetings. The items are listed in the Scout’s Report.

New Civil War History Booklet

The Knoxville Civil War Roundtable (KCWRT) just released a newly expanded version of its 2015 booklet, Civil War Comes to Knoxville, Tenn. Containing 12 fully researched articles, the booklet provides fascinating stories and little known facts about our town during its most desperate years. The booklet will be used to better inform the public of our unique Civil War history and heritage. It will be available for the first time at the upcoming November Living History Weekend at Fort Dickerson as well as at KCWRT meetings, speaking engagements, and other public events. Speakers, at no cost, for your organization can be requested through our Facebook page or website (KCWRT.org)   

A Tribute to the Late Dewey Beard


Our Ole Friend Dewey

By David Chaltas and Steve Lundberg

We all thought we knew Dewey, but we were mistaken. William ‘Dewey’ Beard was like an iceberg in that we only saw the surface. He was a man of many hats and possessed talents beyond our wildest imaginings. He was a reenactor, historian, musician, singer, author, and actor. He performed in Operas, stunned the audience in karaoke impromptus, and churches. But most of all, he was a true friend and a strong Christian. His smile radiated throughout the room and when you met him on the field, his genuineness, gentleness, and kindness always made you feel welcome and important. He had a heart of gold and humble in nature. And who could forget that smile and impish prankster nature he possessed.

What can we say about Dewey? His life and his memories speaks volumes about the man. Lance Dawson, one of Dewey’s dear friends stated that trying to define Dewey was like needing an undiscovered color for a coloring book or art project. We agree, he was one of a kind and unique as that yet to be defined color. How can we define Dewey’s legacy? Maybe it is best to share some Dewey Tales and let them define the man.

One of the numerous stories that we have gives you a glimpse into his character. In order to recreate the Battle of Ft. Sanders, a replica of the earthen fort was built. One bright morning as the mist meandered over the field, we were awakened to the sound of Amazing Grace. When we looked upon the fort, there stood Dewey praising God in that voice that the angels coveted. He didn’t do it for show, but rather for the simple joy of praising God in the early day break light.

Jerry Patterson of the 63rd Tennessee, shared a story about Dewey at Fort Dickerson. Dewey had played and sang a few period songs. A man approached him and asked Dewey if he could sing any of AC/DC music. Dewey replied, “Which singer?” and proceeded to amaze the man with his range and musical abilities. Many recalled the many different characters he portrayed. At times he put on the

uniform of a World War I Veteran, and on other occasions, he wore a World War II uniform. During highland games he dressed in his plaid tartans. One story was that he was to meet in Knoxville with a few of his friends. They looked everywhere and didn’t see him until the ‘band’ came marching along playing. Right in the middle of the group was ole Dewey playing and marching away!

He was a Civil War reenactor that honored both blue and gray. He wore his Confederate uniform with the same dignity that he wore his Union one. But he didn’t just dress in different uniforms, he was a walking encyclopedia of knowledge. If you got him started on a historical subject, you were in for a full explanation of the significance of events that transpired.

While talking with our mutual friend, Ken, he made a very important observance. During the service paying homage to Dewey, there were several videos with Dewey performing. At the very last, he played taps at a cemetery. Noting that, Ken stated, “Dewey is the only man who sang and played taps at his own funeral.” That summates our beloved friends last gift to us all.

Our friend Steven Lundberg offers the following tribute to our good ole friend Dewey. William “Dewey” Beard suddenly left this mortal coil by God’s grace on August 21, 2022, much to the dismay of everyone he has ever loved and touched in his fifty-seven years among us. His loving sweetheart Ann Martin, lifelong friend Dana Rice and others so accurately and emotionally conveyed that they have a hole in their hearts that could only be filled by one man – Dewey. The rest of us nod in agreement.

We are honoring to the best of our ability a man who we and countless others knew was a dear friend, an historical scholar, author, actor, musical performer, and musician and who he personally characterized as, “Your good ole friend Dewey.” We think his most cherished moniker is being known as the latter; “Your good ole friend Dewey.” That is how we remember him. We attempt to pay tribute to a man we knew and who enriched our lives and so many others just by knowing him. No life so lived can be summarized in a short article. Dewey Beard had a curiosity of a great many things and devoted his time and energy in pursuit of everything that piqued that curiosity with zeal and his utmost effort. He was a Renaissance man on many levels. Whatever he was interested in, he pursued with unbounded passion.

Dewey never met anyone who was not his friend. Your first meeting with Dewey meant that you were part of his extended family. You just knew that immediately. Dewey was the finest example of a man of service and selflessness. He put everyone above himself and there was nothing he would not sacrifice or do for someone else regardless of the situation. You were always happy to have been with Dewey and felt your time was better and life enriched spent in his presence.

As for his passions, they were many. No one put himself more into the details and depths of things that interested him in or had a talent for than he did. Dewey Beard was an historical author and scholar in his own right particularly related to East Tennessee and the Civil War. If you had a question about anything, he was someone you went to and he would either have the answer or knew how to get it. Einstein said that genius was not knowing the answer is but knowing how to find it. For many of us Dewey was our “go to” if we wanted to know something or gain historical perspective on a person or event. What a treasure and blessing he was to all of us.

Dewy Beard was also a singer and first-class performer and musician on a professional level. He had an opportunity to sing opera professionally. Dewey chose another path but that meant we were blessed with his talents, singing in our Civil War reenacting camps, playing bugle, or singing on the WBIR Heartland Series, at his church on the stage, or to his friends including Ann Martin who recalled a particular snowy Christmas eve, The power was out, and Dewey, wearing his stocking cap picked up his mandolin and sang Christmas songs to Ann including a favorite, “O Holy Night.” He wanted to make the moment special, focused on the meaning of the night and make his dear Ann happy. That was who Dewey was.

All of us who knew Dewey wish to say, “Thank you Dewey for the lessons you taught us on and off the field. Your Christian testimony, your wisdom, your kindness, that amazing voice and musical talents, and that humorous ‘pixie’ demeanor that brought us so much joy will be missed. But we are a better people because of you. We will do our best to embrace life on life’s terms and be kinder, more understanding, and show love through our actions because God graciously allowed our paths to cross.”


William Arley (DEWEY) Beard III, age 57, of Knoxville, TN and longtime resident of Strawberry Plains, Tennessee, passed away suddenly on Sunday, August 21, 2022, at his residence in Knoxville. He was a member of the 79th New York Highlanders, Kyle Masonic Lodge #422 F&AM, Lakeway Civil War Preservation Association, General Longstreet Museum, and Knoxville Civil War Roundtable. His many personal accomplishments included acting/singing (UT and Knoxville Opera Companies, Dollywood, Encore Theater); Historian (appearances on the History Channel, PBS, The Heartland Series, local tours) along with invited lectures (local colleges and high schools). Dewey was also a published historical author (“Blue Springs,” “History of the 79th New York Cameron Highlanders 1859-1876”, and “Strawberry Plains Tennessee 1861-1865.”)

A tremendous voice is now silent, but his legacy will live on in the hearts of all he touched and through his expansive collection of rare historical items. A Foundation for these items will be established to share with Museums and Historical Organizations. Preceded in death by father, William Arley (Bill) Beard II. He is survived by his loving mother, Stella Beard of Baton Rouge, LA; special longtime partner, Anne Martin of Knoxville; sister, Kim Beard Pollard (Brian) of Knoxville; niece, Chelsea Pollard of Knoxville; and nephew, Alex Pollard of Murfreesboro. There are also several aunts, cousins, and one remaining uncle. Central to his life were his numerous friends met through acting/singing, schools, reenactments, and karaoke.

A Memorial service was held at 3:00 p.m. Saturday, August 27, 2022, at Central United Methodist Church, 201 3rd Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37917 with Rev. Jimmy Sherrod officiating. Family received friends from 1:00 until 3:00 p.m. prior to the service. Family and friends gathered at 1:45 p.m. Sunday, August 28, 2022, at Beaver Creek Baptist Church Cemetery, 845 Beaver Creek Road, Strawberry Plains, TN for a 2:00 p.m. graveside service.

Special Live Presentation July 12; Public Invited

The Knoxville Civil War Round Table is proud to announce that the premier living
historians portraying Generals Grant (Curt Fields) and Lee (Thomas Jessee) will be on
stage for one very special performance on July 12, 2022 at 7 PM at Faith Lutheran
Church in Farragut. “Meeting at Appomattox Court House: The Last 48 Hours” is not
to be missed! Ticket price is $10. Children undere 12 are free. Doors open at 6 PM. Period musical presentation ar 6:30 PM. Costumed reenactors will be present.

Dr. E. C. (CURT) FIELDS, Jr., is an educational consultant and living
historian. A lifelong student of the American Civil War, his interest in
portraying General Ulysses S. Grant was driven by that study and his deep
respect and admiration for Gen. Grant. Dr. Fields is the same height and body
type as Gen. Grant and therefore presents a convincing, true-to-life image of
the man as he really looked.  His presentations are in first person, quoting
from Gen. Grant’s Memoirs, articles, letters, and interviews. As a living
historian, Dr. Fields has portrayed Gen. Grant at battlefield reenactments and
commemorations across the U.S. He has portrayed the general on film as
well, staring as Gen. Grant in the Visitor Center film shown at Appomattox
Court House National Historic Park and in the Discovery Channel’s three-
part documentary series “How Booze built America.” When not on the road
as Gen. Grant, Dr. Fields lives in Collierville, TN with his wife Lena.

THOMAS LEE JESSEE is a native Virginian who became interested in
military history as a boy growing up in Hamilton, Virginia in the heart of
Mosby’s Rangers’ country. He has been reenacting since the age of 18 starting
out as a Private and working his way up to General. He has attended
reenactments of all the major War Between the States battles throughout the
U.S. and has commanded troops at many of the national events. As a longtime
student of General Robert E. Lee, Mr. Jessee has portrayed the general in
various venues for many years and was chosen to portray General Lee at the
Sesquicentennial of Appomattox reenactment in Virginia and for the new
Appomattox Visitors Center film shown daily to the public. A retired
Electrical Superintendent and an active member of the Sons of Confederate
Veterans, Mr. Jessee currently lives in Lakeland, Florida with his wife Gail

Knoxville Civil War Preservation South of the River – Then & Now

The following excerpt is from a chapter in a forthcoming book on the Knoxville Campaign

By James R. Doncaster

While most of the major action in and around Knoxville occurred north of the Tennessee River—the Battle of Campbell’s Station on November 16th, Sanders’ delaying action on the Kingston Pike on the 17th and 18th, and of course the climatic assault on Fort Sanders on the 29th—the areas south of the river were not without conflict. As Longstreet and Burnside maneuvered above the river, General Joseph Wheeler with portions of four brigades of cavalry was dispatched by Longstreet to approach Knoxville via Maryville in a southern approach to the city. Contesting their advance were elements of Sanders’ cavalry who fought delaying actions near Rockford and Stock Creek before being driven back into the city on the 15th. All that kept Wheeler from crossing the pontoon bridge in pursuit were Union infantry supported by artillery placed on the hills south of the river. Heavy skirmishing on the 15th and 16th occurred on the lower heights of what would soon become Forts Dickerson and Stanley and in the valley in between them.

The most significant action south of the river occurred on November 25th when Robertson’s and Law’s Confederate brigades, the same brigades that had fought at Gettysburg’s Little Round Top less than five months before, clashed with Cameron’s blocking brigade of Union infantry. After scores of casualties were inflicted on both sides, the attacking force of Confederates returned to their lines on Cherokee Heights. Burnside and Poe examined the field and assessed the continuing threat the next day. The result was the creation of a battery position with supporting infantry trenchwork on a neighboring hill christened Fort Higley.     

Due to the topography of the land south of the Tennessee River, sites important to the contending armies generally have not suffered the fate of those north of it. The rugged hills opposite town rise from the southern riverbank to eminences more than three hundred feet in height, stymying development. Not all the land of historical significance there has been preserved, but much of it has thanks to the ongoing efforts of the City of Knoxville, the Aslan Foundation, and the Legacy Parks Foundation, with support from the American Battlefield Trust and the Knoxville Civil War Round Table. Because of the varying involvement of the different groups in the preservation efforts, the hills and crowning forts and fortifications will be addressed individually. Moving from west to east, they are Cherokee Heights, Armstrong Hill, Fort Higley, Fort Dickerson, and Fort Stanley.      

Cherokee Heights (Cherokee Bluff)

The lower slopes of Cherokee Heights on the eastern side from which Law and Robertson launched their attack on Cameron’s brigade is as rough and wooded now as it was in 1863 and is totally undeveloped. The flat top of the bluff above where E. Porter Alexander, the Confederate First Corps artillery commander, trained the guns of Captain William Parker’s Virginia battery on the federal lines across the river, sadly was lost to development in the late twentieth century. A gated condominium village now occupies this once lofty Confederate position.

Armstrong Hill  

Drury Armstrong owned the parcel of land that bore his name and became the site of the largest fight of the Knoxville campaign south of the river. The land, accessible by the Cherokee Trail today, remained in private hands for the next 150 years until it was purchased by Legacy Parks Foundation in 2009. Legacy Parks raised $1.5 million, including a $10,000 donation from the American Battlefield Trust, to acquire the River Bluff property which encompasses Armstrong Hill. Legacy Parks then deeded the property to the City of Knoxville in November of 2015 for inclusion in Knoxville’s Urban Wilderness. Hiking trails and interpretive signage on the Armstrong Hill fight are currently under study by the city and the foundation.

Fort Higley

After the fight at Armstrong Hill  Poe thought it expedient to strengthen the western edge of the city’s southside defenses. Thus, guns from Fort Stanley were emplaced and infantry trenchwork in a figure 8 pattern were dug in what soon would be called Fort Higley. No significant action occurred in this sector after these defensive moves were made. Fort Higley remained in private hands well into the twenty-first century. When the prospect of condo development loomed, however, the charitable Aslan Foundation in 2008 intervened, purchasing a 39-acre tract that held the fort. After archeological work was conducted at the site, Aslan developed the area into a public park that opened in 2013. Today, High Ground Park, which remains under Aslan’s stewardship, contains abundant signage and well-maintained trails that lead to the old earthen fort, an old Military Road, and to overlooks with sweeping vistas of the area. The park is accessible via the Cherokee Trail and is open to the public daily.

Fort Dickerson

By far the best-preserved remnant of the Civil War in Knoxville is Fort Dickerson. Begun in the days leading up to the siege to protect the southern approaches to the city and completed in February of ‘64 after the siege was lifted, the fort remains the best example of a Civil War earthen fort in East Tennessee. The fort remained in private hands until it became an 85-acre city park in 1957. Fort Dickerson was the site of a large centennial reenactment of the Battle of Fort Sanders in 1963, and it has been the site of annual reenactments and living history weekends conducted by the Knoxville Civil War Round Table for almost forty years. Over the years, the fort has been gradually restored by the Round Table and the City of Knoxville. Trees and vines have been removed, viewsheds opened, and three artillery pieces were purchased and placed in the fort’s embrasures by the Round Table to approximate the look of the fort in war time. The Aslan Foundation in 2017 created a beautiful new Fort Dickerson Gateway to welcome visitors entering the park at 3000 Fort Dickerson Road off Chapman Highway. Aslan also has been funding kudzu removal in the park and is making plans to build boardwalks beneath the ramparts of the fort to protect its earthen walls.    

Fort Stanley

The hill upon which Fort Stanley sits is just to the east of Fort Dickerson across present-day Chapman Highway. Together the two forts commanded the approaches to the city from the south. Union trenchwork and rifle pits defined Fort Stanley during the siege, and afterwards tents covered hillsides cleared to provide fields of fire. Today, little of Fort Stanley remains, and that which does exist is vine-covered and overgrown. Nevertheless, the Aslan Foundation purchased 22 acres of the hill in 2011 to protect the site and is considering purchasing additional acreage to protect the viewshed from the city.

The Future

One of the most enticing features of life in Knoxville today is the development of the Knoxville Urban Wilderness. According to the Visit Knoxville website, “Knoxville’s Urban Wilderness is a spectacular outdoor adventure area where you can hike, bike, climb, paddle, or just wander in the woods—all within the heart of the city. Over 50 miles of trails and greenways connect you to a beautiful nature center, pristine lakes, historic sites, dramatic quarries, adventure playgrounds, five city parks, and a 500-acre wildlife area.”

The Urban Wilderness master plan calls for the forging of a new series of trails called the “Battlefield Loop”. The loop trail as proposed would link the Armstrong Hill battlefield with Forts Higley, Dickerson, and Stanley–in effect connecting all the extant Civil War sites south of the river. Much of the trail already exists, though some connecting links are yet to be defined. Still, thanks to the visionary thinking of leaders in city government, area foundations, and local civic organizations the future for historic preservation, restoration and interpretation in Knoxville never looked brighter. The Battlefield loop was not even a pipe dream twenty years ago. Soon it will be a reality.